Web 环境集成

Unsurprisingly, one of WebAssembly’s primary purposes is to run on the Web, for example embedded in Web browsers (though this is not its only purpose).

This means integrating with the Web ecosystem, leveraging Web APIs, supporting the Web’s security model, preserving the Web’s portability, and designing in room for evolutionary development. Many of these goals are clearly reflected in WebAssembly’s high-level goals. In particular, WebAssembly MVP will be no looser from a security point of view than if the module was JavaScript.

More concretely, the following is a list of points of contact between WebAssembly and the rest of the Web platform that have been considered:

JavaScript API

A JavaScript API is provided which allows JavaScript to compile WebAssembly modules, perform limited reflection on compiled modules, store and retrieve compiled modules from offline storage, instantiate compiled modules with JavaScript imports, call the exported functions of instantiated modules, alias the exported memory of instantiated modules, etc.

The Web embedding includes additional methods useful in that context. In non-web embeddings, these APIs may not be present.

Additional Web Embedding API

WebAssembly.compileStreaming

:cyclone: Added for milestone 2, developers must feature detect.

In Web embeddings, the following methods are added.

Note that it is expected that compileStreaming and instantiateStreaming be either both present or both absent.

Promise<WebAssembly.Module> compileStreaming(source)

source is unconditionally passed through the built-in value of Promise.resolve. If the result is not a Response object, then the returned Promise is rejected with a TypeError. This allows developers to pass either a promise that resolves to a Response object or a Response object (which is automatically cast to a promise) for the source. Renderer-side security checks about tainting for cross-origin content are tied to the types of filtered responses defined in Fetch.

This function starts an asynchronous task to compile a WebAssembly.Module as described in the WebAssembly.Module constructor. On success, the Promise is fulfilled with the resulting WebAssembly.Module object. On failure, the Promise is rejected with a WebAssembly.CompileError or TypeError, depending on the type of failure.

The resolved Response is used as the source of the bytes to compile. MIME type information is extracted from the Response, WebAssembly source data must have a MIME type of application/wasm, extra parameters are not allowed (including empty application/wasm;). A MIME type mismatch, a response whose type is not “basic”, “cors”, or “default”, or a response whose status is not an ok status, must cause the Promise to be rejected with a TypeError.

WebAssembly.instantiateStreaming

:cyclone: Added for milestone 2, developers must feature detect.

In Web embeddings, the following methods are added.

dictionary WebAssemblyInstantiatedSource {
   required WebAssembly.Module module;
   required WebAssembly.Instance instance;
};

Promise<InstantiatedSource> instantiateStreaming(source [, importObject])

source is unconditionally passed through the built-in value of Promise.resolve. If the result is not a Response object, then the returned Promise is rejected with a TypeError. This allows developers to pass either a promise that resolves to a Response object or a Response object (which is automatically cast to a promise) for the source. Renderer-side security checks about tainting for cross-origin content are tied to the types of filtered responses defined in Fetch.

This function starts an asynchronous task that first compiles a WebAssembly.Module based on bytes from source as described in the WebAssembly.Module constructor and then instantiate the resulting Module with importObject as described in the WebAssembly.Instance constructor. On success, the Promise is fulfilled with a plain JavaScript object pair {module, instance} containing the resulting WebAssembly.Module and WebAssembly.Instance. The 2 properties module and instance of the returned pair are configurable, enumerable and writable.

On failure, the Promise is rejected with a TypeError, WebAssembly.CompileError, WebAssembly.LinkError, or WebAssembly.RuntimeError, depending on the cause of failure.

The resolved Response is used as the source of the bytes to compile. MIME type information is extracted from the Response, WebAssembly source data must have a MIME type of application/wasm, extra parameters are not allowed (including empty application/wasm;). A MIME type mismatch, a response whose type is not “basic”, “cors”, or “default”, or a response whose status is not an ok status, must cause the Promise to be rejected with a TypeError.

Developer-facing display conventions

Browsers, JavaScript engines, and offline tools have common ways of referring to JavaScript artifacts and language constructs. For example, locations in JavaScript source code are printed in stack traces or error messages, and are represented naturally as decimal-format lines and columns in text files. Names of functions and variables are taken directly from the sources. Therefore (for example) even though the exact format of Error.stack strings does not always match, the locations are easily understandable and the same across browsers.

To achive the same goal of a common representations for WebAssembly constructs, the following conventions are adopted.

A WebAssembly location is a reference to a particular instruction in the binary, and may be displayed by a browser or engine in similar contexts as JavaScript source locations. It has the following format:

${url}:wasm-function[${funcIndex}]:${pcOffset}

Where

  • ${url} is the URL associated with the module, if applicable (see notes).
  • ${funcIndex} is an index in the function index space.
  • ${pcOffset} is the offset in the module binary of the first byte of the instruction, printed in hexadecimal with lower-case digits, with a leading 0x prefix.

Notes:

  • The URL field may be interpreted differently depending on the context. When the response-based instantiation API is used in a browser, the associated URL should be used; or when the ArrayBuffer-based instantiation API is used, the browser should represent the location of the API call. This kind of instantiation is analagous to executing JavaScript using eval; therefore if the browser has an existing method to represent the location of the eval call it can use a similar one for WebAssembly.instantiate. For example if the browser uses foo.js line 10 > eval or eval at bar (foo.js:10:3) for eval, it could use foo.js line 10 > WebAssembly.instantiate or WebAssembly.instantiate at bar (foo.js:10:3), respectively. Offline tools may use a filename instead.
  • Using hexadecimal for module offsets matches common conventions in native tools such as objdump (where addresses are printed in hex) and makes them visually distinct from JavaScript line numbers. Other numbers are represented in decimal.

While the name property of exported WebAssembly functions is specified by the JS API, synthesized function names are also displayed in other contexts like devtool callstacks and Error.stack. If a WebAssembly module contains a “name” section, these names should be used to synthesize a function name as follows:

  • If a function name subsection is present, the displayed name should be ${module_name}.${function_name} or ${function_name}, depending on whether the module name is present.
  • Otherwise, the output can be context-dependent:
    • If the function name is shown alongside its location in a stack trace, then just the module name (if present) or an empty string can be used (because the function index is already in the location).
    • Otherwise, ${module_name}.wasm-function[${funcIndex}] or wasm-function[${funcIndex}] should be used to convey the function index.

Note that this document does not specify the full format of strings such as stack frame representations; this allows engines to continue using their existing formats for JavaScript (which existing code may already be depending on) while still printing WebAssembly frames in a format consistent with JavaScript.

Modules

WebAssembly’s modules allow for natural integration with the ES6 module system.

Names

A WebAssembly module can have imports and exports, which are identified using UTF-8 byte sequences. The most natural Web representation of a mapping of export names to exports is a JS object in which each export is a property with a name encoded in UTF-16. A WebAssembly module fails validation on the Web if it has imports or exports whose names do not transcode cleanly to UTF-16 according to the following conversion algorithm, assuming that the WebAssembly name is in a Uint8Array called array:

function convertToJSString(array)
{
  var string = "";
  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; ++i)
    string += String.fromCharCode(array[i]);
  return decodeURIComponent(escape(string));
}

This performs the UTF8 decoding (decodeURIComponent(escape(string))) using a common JS idiom. Transcoding failure is detected by decodeURIComponent, which may throw URIError. If it does, the WebAssembly module will not validate. This validation rule is only mandatory for Web embedding.

Security

WebAssembly’s security model should depend on the same-origin policy, with cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) and subresource integrity to enable distribution through content distribution networks and to implement dynamic linking.

SIMD

Once SIMD is supported WebAssembly would:

  • Be statically typed analogous to SIMD.js-in-asm.js;
  • Reuse specification of operation semantics (with TC39);
  • Reuse backend implementation (same IR nodes).

GC

Once GC is supported, WebAssembly code would be able to reference and access JavaScript, DOM, and general WebIDL-defined objects.